Things to know about Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) | Dorleco

Things to know about Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)


Unknown to you, even when not in use, electric vehicles (EVs) can benefit both their drivers and the environment. This is due to the advancement of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology.

One element of the larger endeavor to attain a zero-carbon future is V2G technology. A problem with a lot of renewable energy sources is that the energy they generate needs to be stored or used right away. By allowing our energy system to balance more renewable energy, V2G helps reduce the effects of climate change.

Large power banks, or stationary energy storage, are becoming more and more popular. They are an excellent means of storing energy produced by massive solar power plants. Pump stations, where water is pumped up and down to store energy, are also frequently seen. Since EV batteries don’t require any additional hardware, they are thought to be the most economical kind of energy storage.

Here are ten V2G-related facts you should be aware of :

1. What does V2G technology entail?

Through the use of vehicle-to-grid technology, extra energy from an EV battery is fed into the national grid. Not only may V2G assist in increasing grid supply during periods of high demand, but it can also generate income for EV owners.

DC smart chargers that are specifically designed for two-way transmission are required for EV owners. Bypassing the automobile’s unidirectional onboard charger, they can either sell their stored electrical energy back to the grid or charge their car from the grid. At predetermined periods that work best for the owner and the grid, the charger chooses when to import and export electricity from the EV.

The maximum V2G charging power is around 10 kW, which is sufficient for charging at home or work. More complete charging options will be used in the future.

Things to know about Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) | Dorleco

2. What is meant by “grid balancing”?

Grid balancing ensures that when power is needed, it is available from the power grid. Utilities must buy electricity on the open market or experience power outages when the grid is unbalanced.

In a conventional grid balancing scenario, power facilities that rely mostly on fossil fuels are ramped up. Emissions and fuel consumption rise as a result. In terms of expenses and environmental effects, using energy from batteries is a significantly better option.

America’s electrical grid is undergoing more frequent surges, shortages, brownouts, and blackouts; these events are predicted to persist because of EV charging, among other factors. The number of EVs in the US will reach up to 35 million by 2030. That is a significant demand on the electrical grid and a significant amount of battery power that could be used to reduce the frequency of blackouts and brownouts on the grid.

3. How is V2G operated?

When it comes to driving, electric vehicle (EV) owners desire to have sufficient energy in their car batteries; nevertheless, the typical automobile is parked approximately 90% of the time. V2G makes effective use of the wasted power.

An EV owner can take part in grid balancing while their car is parked by leaving it hooked into a smart charger that supports V2G. When demand is at its highest during the day, their EV can sell electricity to the grid while parked at work, and it can recharge at home overnight when prices are often at their lowest.

4. What Kinds of V2G Are There?

Three kinds or types of V2G exist: bidirectional local, bidirectional, and unidirectional.

The only energy flow in unidirectional V2G (sometimes called V1G) is from the grid to your electric vehicle. Only when there is an excess of electricity generated in renewable energy power plants can you change your battery. The grid frequency is balanced and energy stability is increased by using EVs.

Your home or business building’s local energy demands are only supplied by bidirectional local V2G. The two types of bidirectional local V2G are vehicle-to-building (V2B) and vehicle-to-home (V2H).

When most people talk about V2G technology, they are referring to bidirectional V2G, which addresses the entire grid. This type saves energy in your EV battery and uses it as needed.

5. What are V2G’s main advantages?

V2G has the potential to significantly impact the EV market in several ways.

  • Increases grid stability and lowers grid stress
  • Reduces carbon emissions through the production of clean, green energy
  • Enables EV owners to drive more cheaply and efficiently
  • Sells extra energy to provide EV owners additional value.
  • lowers the fleet’s overall cost of ownership

A cleaner, more intelligent, reliable, and adaptable grid facilitated by vehicle-to-grid technology (V2G) can expedite the reduction of reliance on fossil fuels.

6. Is vehicle battery life impacted by V2G?

V2G technology’s detractors contend that it shortens the life of EV batteries. The majority of specialists think that V2G discharge, which occurs only a few minutes a day, has little effect on battery life. Nonetheless, researchers are always looking at how V2G affects the EV battery lifecycle.

7. What is the integration of a vehicle with the grid?

The idea of vehicle-to-grid integration, or VGI, expands on vehicle-to-grid technology. Fully integrated systems that link EVs, charging infrastructure, buildings, power grids, renewable energy sources, and behind-the-meter storage solutions are being developed and evaluated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

8. What is the price of V2G?

It is expected that having V2G functionality will increase the vehicle’s cost by $200–$400. An additional $4,500–$5,500 can be spent on a 10-kW (Level 2) DC bi-directional EVSE unit, which the commercial charging station (or, in the case of private chargers, the individual EV owner or business) is responsible for paying.

9. V2X: What is it?

With the use of bidirectional charging technology called V2X, you may use your car’s batteries to power any product or gadget. An average home using less than 30 kWh of energy per day (the U.S. average) may run on an EV battery for about three days straight.

Things to know about Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) | Dorleco

10. How Does Technology Connect Vehicles to the Grid?

EVs can interface with the grid through V2G technology to either draw power for charging or release excess energy back into the system. These cars can serve as a decentralized power source by supplying stored energy during periods of high demand. On the other hand, they charge when there is a surplus of electricity during off-peak hours. Smart technology is needed to implement V2G, which allows an electric car to connect to the electrical grid and add power using a specific bidirectional charger. These cutting-edge gadgets, which have power converters built in, may be programmed to return power to the grid or charge the EV’s battery.

Before an EV can be connected to a bidirectional charger to supply power to the grid, the grid operator must give their approval. A Virtual Power Plant program (VPP) allows for remote management by the grid operator, allowing control over the injected energy.

Applications of V2G Technology:

1) Electric Vehicle Fleet Management: Companies can use V2G to plan charging and discharge, lower operating costs, and assist with sustainability programs to effectively manage their EV fleets.

2) Grid Ancillary Services: V2G technology facilitates the provision of grid ancillary services, such as reactive power support, voltage regulation, and improved grid stability.

3) Integration of Smart houses: EVs equipped with V2G can supply electricity to houses during peak hours, lowering electricity bills and facilitating energy management in the home.

4) Intelligent Energy Trading: By enabling energy trading between EVs and other EVs or the grid, vehicle-to-grid technology promotes a vibrant energy exchange market.

11. How Can V2G Get EV Adoption Off the Ground?

Regulatory support and the establishment of defined protocols are essential to bringing V2G technology to the general public. By establishing defined tariff structures and grid access restrictions, these initiatives encourage V2G integration and guarantee compatibility among various cars and charging infrastructure. The expansion of V2G-capable charging infrastructure into residences, public areas, and workplaces makes it easier for EV owners to participate in V2G. Stakeholder cooperation advances technology, and large-scale demonstration projects highlight the benefits of V2G, which encourages broader use. To perfect V2G technology, maximize energy management, and guarantee grid stability for widespread use, ongoing research, and development are still essential.

12. Can Vehicles Be Connected to India’s Grid?

The electricity grid in India depends heavily on V2G. By 2030, 500 GW of renewable energy will be produced in India; during that time, about 40% of new cars sold there are anticipated to be electric. Interestingly, markets for two- and three-wheelers may see over 75% EV adoption, underscoring the significant potential to use EV batteries to advance V2G technology throughout India’s energy industry.

Things to know about Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) | Dorleco

India is a country that has the potential to implement Vehicle-to-Grid technology, but it is not currently ready due to a few key factors. The foundation is being laid by the developing EV infrastructure, but faster deployment is required due to the lack of bi-directional chargers, which are necessary for V2G. Regulations that define grid access and encourage consumer participation must be in line with V2G integration. It becomes imperative to strengthen the grid infrastructure, requiring modifications to control the flow of electricity in both directions. Increased public knowledge of V2G’s advantages is crucial, emphasizing its contribution to sustainability and grid support. To successfully integrate V2G in India, extensive initiatives including grid improvements, infrastructure development, regulatory clarity, and awareness campaigns are required.

13. Possibilities and Difficulties

Because they are parked for a large amount of their lives, electric vehicles (EVs) present an appealing and adaptable option for the power system due to their built-in battery storage capacity. The EV fleets’ enormous storage capacity is produced by this special feature. To support power system operations, these EVs serve as dispersed storage resources and flexible loads. When paired with renewable energy sources, V2G can reduce the impact of additional load on the power system and maximize the synergies between EVs and renewables. This makes V2G especially important for solar-based systems. By using smart EV charging, carbon-intensive fossil fuel facilities are used less often to balance renewable energy sources.  Investments in the distribution grid may be unnecessary when V2G is implemented.

Before India can fully realize the potential of V2G, there are a few obstacles to overcome.  The number of EVs that must be combined to form a storage network is higher since the adoption of EVs is predicted to accelerate in smaller car segments. Huge potential can be unlocked by a device that connects these tiny cars, or even simply the batteries in them. The development of bidirectional charging stations, which allow the combined network of batteries to function as an energy storage system, presents another difficulty. without this essential infrastructure.

Electric vehicles (EVs) are limited to receiving energy; they cannot return it to the grid. To meet its targets for 2030 and beyond, India needs to take advantage of the potential presented by V2G, which offers a solution for zero carbon emissions in energy and mobility.


With its revolutionary connection between electric vehicles and energy grids, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology promises increased sustainability and stability for the grid. Although India appears to be prepared for V2G integration, overcoming infrastructure obstacles and encouraging regulatory coherence are essential to advancing this innovation in the direction of a sustainable energy future.

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